# Bandwidth can also be a step of frequencies

Webhosts and servers use the to be denoted by the term bandwidth Number of data transferred to or from website or the server a unit of time. A link can communicate a maximum bit rate, in accord with its station capacity.

All bands of a given width hold exactly the same amount of Information. The bandwidth of a device is called its bandwidth. This quantity is expressed as a percentage or a fraction. To how wideband it’s an antenna’s fractional bandwidth relates.

## antenna bandwdith

Antenna RF bandwidth is sometimes described as the width in Frequency at a level of 6 dB below the peak, which may incorporate a minor lobe which exceeds the -6 dB level. Bandwidth can also be a step of frequencies over which an antenna Can receive or radiate electromagnetic energy. The Q factor of an antenna is inversely related to antenna bandwidth. An antenna is selected on the grounds of its bandwidth/Q factor. An antenna with low bandwidth cannot be utilized successfully in wide-band applications.

For comparison purposes, below are a few common antenna types. With centre frequencies set at 1 GHz, they are ranked from lowest to highest bandwidth:

• Patch — 0.03 fractional bandwidth
• Dipole — 0.08 fractional bandwidth
• Horn — 1.694 fractional bandwidth
• Spiral — 1.805 fractional bandwidth

Q and bandwidth are applicable to circuits in General, i.e. not just the ones that are antennas. Q is a measure of their caliber of a circuit. It is a figure of merit, corresponding to narrow bandwidth, which is desired in a resonant circuit.

## Where a circuit contains resistive and reactive

Q = PSTORED / / PDISSIPATED = I2X / I2R

Simplifying:

Where X = capacitive or inductive reactance

And R = string resistance

This equation for finding Q applies to both series and Where the resistance is in series with the inductance parallel resonant circuits. Since X is in the numerator, greater reactance always means greater Q. Because R is in the denominator, greater immunity means lower Q. Because I’m squared, it figures prominently in similar equations, but appearing here in both numerator and denominator, it cancels out and does not affect Q or inversely the bandwidth of the circuit.

In the resonant frequency, both capacitive and inductive Reactances cancel out and are equal. The circuit impedance is comprised by the component. A decrease resistance creates Q and lower bandwidth.

Impedance is greatest at a resonant circuit. Above or below resonance, impedance decreases. At resonance, impedance is minimum in a series resonant circuit. Above or below resonance, impedance increases. These effects are more dramatic when the resistance is diminished, creating bandwidth that is less and a higher Q factor.

## What is bandwidth

Linking an RLC can demonstrates these effects Resonant circuit to a random function generator sine wave. So resistance can be diverse use a potentiometer. Probe the output and link to a analog input channel. The AFG sinewave frequency to find resonance. Substitute capacitors. Press Math>FFT to show the circuit output signal in the frequency domainname. By turning the potentiometer to discover the effect on bandwidth and Q, vary R.

Bandwidth theories apply to the display of electrical Sound. Noise will be broadband in frequency, Apart from comprising irregular changes. These two qualities can be exploited to eliminate the effects of sound.

Using a Tektronix MDO3000 Series oscilloscope, we apply a Sine wave and display it via an analog station input. Then press Output Settings and then add sound. This is enough to ditch the trace and produce the screen eliminate tripping. Waveform averaging is effective in cleaning up the signal, because the wave is periodic but the sound is arbitrary. Press Acquire > Mode > Typical. Then, using Multipurpose Knob a, increase the number until the noise is abated of waveforms that are averaged.

It may be because sound is a broad-spectrum phenomenon Mitigated by temporarily restricting the bandwidth. Reacquire that the wave with noise added. Press the channel button. From the menu at the bottom, press . In addition to Full Bandwidth, it could be reduced to 250 MHz and 20 MHz. 250 MHz has small Effect but cutting on the bandwidth to 20 MHz considerably eliminates the sounds.