# What is bandwidth?

Servers and webhosts use the term bandwidth to denote the Amount of data transferred to or by website or the server a unit of time. A link can communicate a maximum bit rate, in accordance with its channel capacity that is Shannon-Hartley.

All bands of a given width hold the Exact Same amount of Irrespective of frequency, information. The bandwidth of a device split by its centre frequency is known as its fractional bandwidth. This amount is expressed as a percentage or a percentage. To wideband it’s an antenna’s bandwidth relates.

## antenna bandwdith

Antenna RF bandwidth is described as the width in Frequency in a level of 6 dB below the peak, which might incorporate a minor lobe which surpasses the -6 dB degree.

Bandwidth is a measure of frequencies over which an antenna Can receive or radiate electromagnetic energy. The Q factor of an antenna is inversely related to antenna bandwidth. An antenna is chosen on the grounds of its bandwidth/Q element. A antenna with low bandwidth cannot be used in wide-band software.

For comparison purposes, here are a few frequent antenna types. With center frequencies set in 1 GHz, they can be ranked from lowest to highest bandwidth:

- Patch — 0.03 fractional bandwidth
- Dipole — bandwidth
- Horn — bandwidt
- Spiral — 1.805 fractional bandwidth

Q and bandwidth are related to circuits that are resonant in Overall, i.e. not only the ones that are antennas. Q is a measure of their caliber of a circuit. It is a figure of merit, corresponding to narrow bandwidth, which is normally desirable at a circuit.

**Q = PSTORED / / PDISSIPATED = I2X / I2R**

## Simplifying:

**Where X = capacitive or inductive reactance**

**And R = string resistance**

This equation for finding Q applies to both series and Parallel resonant circuits where the resistance is in series with the inductance. Because X is in the numerator, greater reactance always means higher Q. Since R is at the denominator, higher immunity means lower Q. Because I’m squared, it figures prominently in comparable equations, but appearing here in both numerator and denominator, it cancels out and does not influence Q or inversely the bandwidth of the circuit.

At the resonant frequency, capacitive and inductive Reactances are equal and cancel out. The circuit impedance is comprised by the resistive component. A lower immunity creates bandwidth and Q.

Impedance is greatest in a resonant circuit. Impedance is minimal in a series resonant circuit. Above or below resonance, impedance increases. These impacts are more dramatic once the resistance is dizinished, making bandwidth that is less and a higher Q factor.

By linking an RLC, these effects could be shown Circuit to an arbitrary function generator sine wave at the input. So resistance can be varied use a potentiometer. Probe the output and connect to a oscilloscope analog input channel. Vary the AFG sinewave frequency to find resonance. Substitute capacitors. Press Math>FFT to display the circuit output in the frequency domain. By turning the potentiometer to discover the impact on bandwidth and Q, change R.

## Where a resonant circuit contains resistive and reactive Components, Q is the ratio of power stored to power dissipated:

Bandwidth theories apply to the display of electric Sound. Noise tends to be dispersed in frequency, Apart from consisting of irregular changes. These two qualities can be tapped to eliminate the effects of sound in test instrumentation.

We employ a Sine wave from the inner AFG and show it. At the AFG menu, press Output include 30% sound and then Settings. This is enough produce triggering is lost by the display and to thicken the trace. Because the sine wave is periodic but the noise is arbitrary, waveform averaging is effective in cleaning up the signal. Afterward, using Multipurpose Knob a, raise the amount of waveforms which are averaged until the sound is abated.

It may be because sound is a phenomenon that is broad-spectrum By restricting the bandwidth mitigated. Press Default Setup and Reacquire the sine wave with 30% noise added. Then, press the station button. From the horizontal menu at the bottom, press . In addition to Complete Bandwidth, it can be decreased to 20 MHz and 250 MHz. 250 MHz has little The noise is substantially eliminated by effect but cutting the bandwidth to 20 MHz.